Horse of Troy, gift to the people of Canakkale given by the film producers of the flim Troy (2004, Brad Pitt as Achilles, Diane Kruger as Helen of Troy, Eric Bana as Hector, Orlando Bloom as Paris and Rose Byrne as Briseis )
Anatolia has been home to many great civilizations which had significant effects and impacts on the history of humanity. Troy, located on the eastern bank of the Aegean sea (current Turkey), a region which is known to be the cradle of mythology together with it western counterpart, more through excavations on the west of Turkey. This area, as the home of mythological heroes, has been the stage for tragedies, wars and victories for many centuries.
Power, Triumph and Love : Civilizations have been shaped around these common pursuits of humanity. Some of those civilizations are already forgotten but a part of them are still alive in our present society in the form of Gods, Heroes, Loves and Mythic Legends from centuries away.
Troy is one of the most impressive treasures of humanity. Having not lost anything of its grandness even after thousands of years, this ancient beauty continues its journey to eternity. We learn many details about the 10 year period of the Trojan War from the Iliad of Homer in which the last days of the war is told (51 days). The Iliad, long with the Odyssey are though to be the oldest works of literature. Homer tells about the Trojan War in the epic poem.
Location and Layers of Troia
The ancient city of Troy is located 30 km away from city Çanakkale / western Turkey. Due to natural disasters and wars, the city was destroyed 9 (nine) times throughout the history and rebuilt over the ruins of the previous one. As a result a mound of 16 meters was formed on the plain. Even though the cause of that famous war mentioned in Homer's epic, the Iliad, was said to be the abduction of Helen, the real reason was that the Achaeans desired to reach the Black Sea and conquer the rich lands of Anatolia.
Kumtepa or Troy 0 : Neolithic settlement that extend in the area of Troy.
Troy I (3000-2600 BC.) : The first Trojan settlement 100 m in diameter, was built on a very primitive dwelling of mud bricks.
Troy II (2600-2300 BC.) : The next village is more developed and rich. In 1873, the German archaeologist Schlieman discovered in this layer the famous Trojan treasure, which consisted of numerous weapons, copper trinkets, pieces of jewelry, gold vessels, gravestones prehistoric period. This developed culutre was destroyed by fire.
Troy III-VI-V (2300-1900 BC) : These layers show a period of decline in the history of the ancient city.
Troy VI (1900-1300 BC) : City increased in diameter up to 200 meters. The settlement became the victim of a major earthquake in 1300 BC.
Troy VII-A (1300-1200 BC) : This period is the famous era which we know from the Trojan War. Later, the Athenians plundered and destroyed the settlement.
Troy VII-B (1200-900 BC) : Dilapidated Troy was captured by Phrygians (ancient dsitrict in west-central Anatolia).
Troy VIII (900-350 BC) : During this period, the city was inhabited by Greeks. King Xerxes then went to Troy and brought here to sacrifice more than 1.000 head of cattle.
Troy IX (350 BC - 400 AD) : A quite large center of the Hellenistic era.
Trojan Excavations by Schliemann
Heinrich Schliemann is the key for Troy. The legendary excavation story of Troy and the interesting personality of the excavator Schliemann made that ancient City of Troy even more interesting. It is known that several travellers and scholars such as Fr. Le Chevalier (1785), architect A.F.Maudit (1811), French Ambassador Choiseul-Gouffier (1818) and Ch.Texier (1833) and English Frank Calvert had been to the region before Schliemann.
Schliemann started his search for Troy with the help and guidance of Frank Calvert an English excavant who made some excavations and discovered some artifacts. Calvert, had purchased the area which he thought to be the archaeological site. Many prehistoric artifacts were found at a hll 6 km south of Troy. He discovered the Temple of Apollo near Akcakoy.
Finally, Schliemann (1868) started several times excavation, while he found different layers and even distroyed some important remainings. On May 31, 1873 he found a treasure and thought it belonged to Priam's Treasure which was not. He smuggled the treasure first to Greece and then to Germany. He faced also problems with the Turkish Government and was ridiculed and seen as a charlatan untill 1882. Nobody belive that he had found Homer's Troy. During the International Congress of Anthropolgy and Prehistoric Archaeology, held in Paris 1889, Schliemann was accused and insulted by the other members because of his claims about Troy.
Schlieman, finally, invited the commitee to his excavation site and in presence of experts which was presided by the Turkish Museums Director Osman Hamdi Bey. On March 30, 1890, the committee of the scholrs declared that Schliemann was right nad that the iste was really Homer's Troy.
The visible Layers of Troy.
Walls of Troy.
Ramp within the city of Troy.
The small Amphitheatre of Troy.
City remanings of Troy.
Homer's Iliad inspired many artist, philosophers and people a long centuries.
Heroes of Troy.
Hector versus Achilles on a greek vase.
The procession of the Trojan Horse into Troy painted by Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo.
Godess Venus preventing her son Aeneas from killing Helen of Troy, by Luca Ferrari.
Aeneas and his family departing from Troy, painted by Peter Paul Rubens
Two kings in the most important moment of a tough war conflict. King Priam asking Achilles to return Hector's death body.